Traces of population aging in Southern Brazil: demographic and epidemiological dynamics of the New Millennium
Keywords:Aging Epidemiology, Demographics, Health of the Elderly, Population Health Management
Objective: This paper explores the demographic and epidemiological implications of population aging in Southern Brazil from 2000 onwards.
Methods: An ecological series study of retrospective temporality, with a quantitative and descriptive approach. We took as units of analysis the three states that make up the Southern Brazilian region, namely: Rio Grande do Sul (RS), Paraná (PR), and Santa Catarina (SC), as well as their corresponding capitals (Porto Alegre, Curitiba, and Florianópolis, respectively). Sociodemographic and territorial data were extracted from official institutes (at the state level) and the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (at the national level). Data was retrieved from the System of Health Indicators and Monitoring of Public Policies for the Elderly, in order to trace the epidemiological profile. We then clustered the data according to state of origin and performed simple descriptive statistical analyses, using measures of dispersion and percentage differentiation.
Findings: The majority of elderly in Southern Brazil are women, self-declared white, and with low levels of schooling. The region went from an aging rate of 32.13% in 2000 to 52.82% in 2010, with Paraná being the most populous state. Positive values were observed in the socioeconomic and social fragility dimensions, as well as in the contextual and environmental aspects. Despite the decrease in cognitive impairments and difficulties in ADLs, visual, hearing, and physical impairments are increasing in worrying proportions. In both geriatric morbidity and mortality, the highest values were concentrated in diseases of the circulatory and respiratory systems and neoplasms. Thus, the region follows the national and international patterns of morbimortality in the elderly.
Conclusions: It is believed that structural and organizational improvements in local public health systems and programs have had a positive effect on the survival of the elderly in Southern Brazil. Coupled with this, the constant improvement and qualification of health professionals reinforce the practices and health care for the aging population, reflecting on the better health rates seen in this population segment.
Vinovskis MA. The life table of Edward Wigglesworth. J. Econ. Hist.1971;31(1):570-590.
Covey HC. The definitions of the beginning of old age in history. Int’l. J. Aging and Human Development. 1992;34(4):325-337.
Thane P. Social histories of Old Age and Aging. J. Soc. Hist. 2003;37(1):93-111.
McHugh D, Gil J. Senescence and aging: causes, consequences, and therapeutic avenues. J. Cell. Biol. 2018;217(1):65-77.
Bakshi GS, Chen Z. Baby-Boom, population aging, and capital markets. J. Bus. 1994;67(2):165-202.
Jaul E, Barron J. Age-related diseases and clinical and public health implications for the 85 years old and over population. Public Health Front. 2017;5(335):1-7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2017.00335
World Health Organization [Internet]. World report on ageing and health [cited 2022 Dec 15] http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/186463/9789240694811_eng.pdf
Braga FG, Matos RES. Is there depopulation in Brazil? Relationships between population demographic growth, aging, migration and competitive integration. Notas de Población. 2019;109:97-118.
Travassos GF, Coelho AB, Arends-Kuenning MP. The elderly in Brazil: demographic transition, profile, and socioeconomic condition. R. bras. Est. Pop. 2020;37(1):1-27. http://dx.doi.org/10.20947/S0102-3098a0129
Brito F. Demographic transition and social inequities in Brazil. R. bras. Est. Pop. 2008;25(1):5-26.
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Brazil in figures 2016.
Alves JED. Population aging in Brazil and in the world: new UN projections. Revista Longeviver. 2019;1(3):5-9.
Alves JED. Demographic bonus in Brazil: from late birth to early death by Covid-19. R. bras. Est. Pop. 2020;37(1):1-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.20947/S0102-3098a0120
Barros, MBA, Goldbaum M. The challenges of aging in the context of social inequality. Rev Saúde Pública. 2018;52(Suppl.2):1-3. https://doi.org/10.11606/S1518-8787.201805200supl2ed
Sousa NFS, Medina LPB, Bastos TF, Monteiro CN, Lima MG et al. Social inequalities in the prevalence of indicators of active aging in the Brazilian population: National Health Survey, 2013. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2019;22(Suppl.2):1-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1980-549720190013.supl.2
Hernández V. Ecological studies: types, design and interpretations. Enferm inflam instest dia. 2017;16(3):98-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eii.2017.03.001
Governo do Paraná. Instituto Paranaense de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social [Internet]. Base de Dados do Estado [cited 2021 Dec 15]. http://www.ipardes.pr.gov.br/Pagina/BASE-DE-DADOS-DO-ESTADO
Governo do Rio Grande do Sul. Fundação de Economia e Estatística Siegfried Emanuel Heuser [Internet]. Perfil Socioeconômico do RS [cited 2021 Dec 15] https://arquivofee.rs.gov.br/perfil-socioeconomico/
Governo de Santa Catarina. Secretaria de Desenvolvimento Econômico Sustentável [Internet]. https://www.sde.sc.gov.br/ [cited 2021 Dec 15]
Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto de Informação e Comunicação Cientícia e Tecnológica em Saúde. Sistema de Indicadores de saúde e Acompanhamento de Políticas Públicas do Idoso, Rio de Janeiro [Internet]. https://sisapidoso.icict.fiocruz.br/como-citar-o-sisap#:~:text=https%3A//sisapidoso.icict.fiocruz.br/ [cited 2021 Dec 20]
Skirbekk VF, Staudinger UM, Cohen JE. How to measure population aging? The answer is less than obvious: a review. Gerontology. 2019;65(1):136-144. https://doi.org/10.1159/000494025
Melo LA, Ferreira MLMB, Santos MM, Lima KC. Socioeconomic, regional and demographic factors related to population ageing. Rev. Bras. Geriatr. Gerontol. 2017;20(4):493-501.
Filho GM, Gargioni SL. Development of the Southern Brazil. National Bank for Economic and Social Development. 2014;12:309-325.
Mattei TF, Mattei TS. Methods of Regional Analysis: a study of location and specialization for the Southern Region of Brazil. Revista Paranaense de Desenvolvimento. 2017;38(133):227-243.
Marconato M, Brambilla MA, Rodrigues KCTT, Nascimento SP. Spatial analysis of the poverty rate and rural population in the southern region of the country. TEC: Textos de Economia. 2015;18(2):16-40. https://doi.org/10.5007/2175-8085.2015v18n2p16
Bianco TS, Lima JF, Morejon CFM. The regional sustainable index in Southern Brazil. Redes, 2016;21(2):8-28. http://dx.doi.org/10.17058/redes.v21i2.6353
Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics [Internet]. Regional Division of Brazil into Immediate Geographic Regions and Intermediate Geographic Regions [cited 2021 Dec 20]. https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/visualizacao/livros/liv100600.pdf
Closs VE, Schwanke CHA. Aging index development in Brazil, regions, and federative units from 1970 to 2010. Rev. Bras. Geriatr. Gerontol. 2015;15(3):443-458. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1809-98232012000300006
Gottieb MGV, Schwanke CHA, Gomes I, Cruz IBM da. Longevity and aging in Rio Grande do Sul state: a hystorical, ethnic and morbi-mortality profile of elderly people. Rev. Bras. Geriatr. Gerontol. 2011;14(2):365-380.
Souza MS, Machado CV. Governance, intersectoriality and social participation in public policy: the National Council on the Rights of the Elderly. Ciên. Saúde Colet. 2018;23(10):3189-3200. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320182310.14112018
Serra DC, Furtado EDP. The elderly in the EJA: a policy of inclusive education. Olhar de Professor, Ponta Grossa. 2016;19(2):149-161.
Lei no 10.741, de 1º de outubro de 2003 [Internet]. Provides on the Statute of the Elderly and makes other provisions [cited 2021 Dec 20]. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/2003/l10.741.htm
Teguo MT, Simo-Tabue S, Stoykova R, Meillon C, Cogne M, et al. Feeling of loneliness and living alone as predictors of mortality in the elderly: the PAQUID Study. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2016;78(8):904-909. https://doi.org/10.1097/PSY.0000000000000386
Swenor BK, Lee MJ, Varadaraj V, Whiston HE, Ramulu PY. Aging with vision loss: a framework for assessing the impact of visual impairment on older adults. The Gerontologist. 2020;60(6):989-995. https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnz117
World Health Organization [Internet]. World health statistics 2019: monitoring health for the SDGs, sustainable development goals [cited 2021 Dec 20]. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/324835
Oliveira AS. Demographic and epidemiological transition and population aging in Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Geografia Médica e da Saúde. 2019;15(31):69-79. http://dx.doi.org/10.14393/Hygeia153248614
Santos MAS, Oliveira MM, Andrade SSCA, Nunes ML, Malta DC, et al. Non-communicable hospital morbidity trends in Brazil, 2002-2012. Epidemiol. Serv. Saúde. 2015;24(3):389-398.
Focchesatto A, Rockett FC, Perry IGS. Risk and protective factors for the development of chronic diseases in a rural elderly population in Rio Grande do Sul. Rev. Bras. Geriatr. Gerontol. 2015;18(4):779-795.
Podmelle RM, Zimmermann RD. Influential factors in the lifestyle and health of the Brazilian elderly: integrative review. Estud. Interdiscipl. Envelhec., Porto Alegre. 2018;23(1):103-123. https://doi.org/10.22456/2316-2171.74679
Marques LP, Confortin SC. Circulatory diseases: leading cause of hospitalization of elderlies in Brazil between 2003 and 2012. Revista Brasileira de Ciências da Saúde. 2015;19(2):83-90.
Grden CGR, Sousa JAV, Lenardt MH, Pesck RM, Seima MD, et at. Characterization of the elderly accident victims due to external causes. Cogitare Enfermagem. 2014;19(3):506-513.
Siqueira FV, Facchini LA, Silveira DA, Piccini RX, Tomasi E, et al. Prevalence of falls in the elderly in Brazil: a countrywide analysis. Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro. 2011;27(9):1819-1826. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-311X2011000900015
Choi NG, Choi BY, DiNitto DM, Marti CN, Kunik ME. Fall-related emergency department visits and hospitalizations among community-dwelling older adults: examination of health problems and injury characteristics. BMC Geriatrics. 2019;19(303):1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1329-2
Li H, Ge J. Cardiovascular diseases in China: Current status and future perspectives. IJIC Heart & Vasculature. 2015;6(1):25-31. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcha.2014.10.002
Souza ACLG, Bortolotto CC, Bertoldi AD, Tomasi E, Demarco FF, et al. All-cause mortality over a three-year period among community-dwelling older adults in Southern Brazil. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2021;24(1):1-14.
Carioli G, Malvezzi M, Bertuccio P, Hashim D, Waxman S, et al. Cancer mortality in the elderly in 11 countries worldwide, 1970-2015. Annals of Oncology. 2019;30:1344-1355. https://doi.org/10.1093/annonc/mdz178
Collaço PMC, Lima LE, Silva SCT. Incidence of neoplasms by sex, in Brazil, in 2018. Revista Saúde & Ciência Online. 2019;8(2):79-85.
Korzeniewski SJ, Bezold C, Carbone JT, Danagoulian S, Foster B, et al. The population health outcomes and information exchange (PHOENIX) Program - A transformative approach to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Online Journal of Public Health Informatics. 2020;12(1):1-24. 10.5210/ojphi.v12i1.10456
Moore M. Chronic crisis: Burden of chronic disease on preventable deaths. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Journal. 2018;25(11):18-23.
Government of Paraná. Secretariat of the State of Health of Paraná [Internet]. Health Guideline for the Elderly. Health Care Superintendency, Curitiba [cited 2021 Dec 20]. http://www.conims.com.br/arquivo_usu/documentos/alterados/sgsites-huner-20180205-103420.pdf
Government of Santa Catarina. Secretariat of the State of Health of Santa Catarina [Internet]. Comprehensive Healthcare Guideline for the Elderly. Planning and Management Superintendence, Florianópolis [cited 2021 Dec 20]. https://www.saude.sc.gov.br/index.php/documentos/legislacao-principal/anexos-de-deliberacoes-cib/anexos-deliberacoes-2018/14727-anexo-307-linha-de-cuidado-a-saude-do-idoso-em-sc/file
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Roberth Steven Gutiérrez Murillo, Wendy Ledix, James Berson Lalane, Larissa Djanilda Parra da Luz, Daiane Regina Pinto, Teresa Chang Chien, José Alexsandro de Araújo Nascimento
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing
For all articles published in Atena Journals, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers
It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for:
- Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
- Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
- Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
- Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for:
- Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
- Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
- Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Atena Journals cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.