Functional balance tests in 7-10 year-old children: reliability and relation to anthropometric parameters
Objectives: This study aimed to examine the reliability of functional balance tests in 7-10 year-old children, as well as the relation between the functional balance tests and anthropometric parameters.
Methods: The study sample was composed of 80 7-10 year-old children (40 boys and 40 girls) from Nishapur (Iran). The participants were selected randomly with the approval of the Nishapur Education Department. Romberg's test and Sharpened Romberg Test were used to assess static balance. Y Balance Test was used to assess semi-dynamic balance. Timed Up and Go Test and Tandem Gait Test were used to assess dynamic balance. The following anthropometric parameters were measured: weight (kg), height (cm), leg length (cm), arch of the foot (cm), upper body length (cm), lower body length (cm), upper limb length (cm). The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 20.
Findings: Romberg test was not reliable. Sharpened Romberg Test was reliable in girls. Timed Up and Go Test and Tandem Gait Test were reliable in boys. Y Balance Test was reliable in boys and girls. The analysis of the correlation between functional balance tests (static and dynamic) and anthropometric parameters according to sex showed that there was only a significant negative correlation between arch of the foot and Sharpened Romberg Test in girls (r=-.43; p=.00).
Conclusions: Sharpened Romberg Test is reliable in Iranian 7-10 year-old girls. Timed Up and Go Test and Tandem Gait Test are reliable in Iranian 7-10 year-old boys. Y Balance Test is reliable in 7-10 year-old Iranian children. Static balance has a significant and negative correlation with the arch of the foot in Iranian 7-10 year-old girls.
López Sánchez GF, González Víllora S, Díaz Suárez A. Level of habitual physical activity in children and adolescents from the Region of Murcia (Spain). SpringerPlus. 2016;5(386):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/S40064-016-2033-8
López Sánchez GF, Gordon D, Hodgson L, Stubbs B, Gardner B, Smith L. The effect of the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympics on spectators’ physical activity. Atena j. sports sci. 2019;1:1-8.
Sánchez García C, Zauder R, López Sánchez GF. Analysis of body composition and physical fitness of futsal players at school age according to their level of physical activity, diet and body image. Atena j. sports sci. 2019;1:1-20.
López Sánchez GF, Gris Roca J, Sánchez Mompeán S, Zauder R, Smith L. Educación Física Bilingüe en Inglés. Opinión y Formación de los Maestros de Educación Física. SPORT TK. 2018;7(2):7-18. https://doi.org/10.6018/sportk.342851
González-Carcelén CM, Nicolás López J, López Sánchez GF. Levels of physical activity in people with diabetes residing in Spain. Atena j. public health. 2020;2:1-21.
Nicolás López J, González Carcelén CM, López Sánchez GF. Barriers to physical activity in people with diabetes residing in Spain. Atena j. public health. 2020;2:1-20.
Asghari M. The effect of a land and water training course in the dynamic and static balance in young male athletes [MA thesis]. Tehran: Islamic Azad University; 2011.
Hosseini S. Examination of the vital capacity, agility and balance in the girls with flat feet and high arch [MA thesis]. Tehran University; 2006.
Hemati Nejad, Rahmani Niya F. Measurement and evaluation in Physical Education. Payam Noor University; 2004.
Ghandili S. Validity and reliability of the functional balance in athlete and non-athlete females in 3 age categories with emphasis on selected anthropometric parameters that aim at providing a model [MA thesis]. Teheran: Islamic Azad University; 2012.
Meshkati L. The relationship between the sports ability level with visual dependency during dynamic balance control among soccer players [MA thesis]. Isfahan University; 2006.
Cattaneo D, Regola A, Meotti M. Validity of six balance disorders scales in persons with multiple sclerosis. Disability and rehabilitation. 2006;28(12):789-795. https://doi.org/10.1080/09638280500404289
Cipriani DJ, Armstrong CW, Gaul S. Backward walking at three levels of treadmill inclination: an electromyographic and kinematic analysis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1995;22(3):95-102. https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.19220.127.116.11
Gribble PA, Hertel J. Effect of hip and ankle muscle fatigue on unipedal postural control. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2004;14(6):641-646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2004.05.001
Hoch MC, Staton GS, McKeon JM, Mattacola CG, McKeon PO. Dorsiflexion and dynamic postural control deficits are present in those with chronic ankle instability. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(6):574-579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.02.009
McLeod TC, Armstrong T, Miller M, Sauers JL. Balance improvements in female high school basketball players after a 6-week neuromuscular-training program. J Sport Rehabil. 2009;18(4):465-481. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsr.18.4.465
Hammarén E, Ohlsson JA, Lindberg C, Kjellby-Wendt G. Reliability of static and dynamic balance tests in subjects with myotonic dystrophy type 1. Advances in Physiotherapy.2012;14(2):48-54. https://doi.org/10.3109/14038196.2012.675352
Copyright (c) 2020 Mahboobeh Dehnavi, Heidar Sadeghi, Mehdi Taghva
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Copyright and Licensing
For all articles published in Atena Journals, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers
It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for:
- Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
- Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
- Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
- Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for:
- Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
- Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
- Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Atena Journals cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.