The role of mental imagery and stress management training in the performance of female swimmers
Keywords:Mental imagery; , Stress management; , Female athletes.
Objectives: The purpose of this research was to study the role of mental imagery and stress management training in the performance of female swimmers.
Methods: The present study included 30 female amateur swimmers (age range 12-15 years) of the swimming team of Zahedan (Iran). A total of 15 swimmers were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the other 15 to the control group. The experimental group received mental imagery and stress management training. Stress management was assessed with the Short Form of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), mental imagery was evaluated with the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-Revised (MIQ-R), and swimming performance swimming front crawl 25 meters.
Findings: After the intervention program, the participants of the experimental group significantly improved their DASS-21 scores (mean difference between pre-test and post-test = 4.37), their MIQ-R scores (mean difference between pre-test and post-test = 4.54) and their swimming performance (mean difference between pre-test and post-test = 0.83 seconds).
Conclusions: Mental imagery and stress management training can significantly improve the performance of female swimmers. These results should be considered by swimmers and coaches and should be applied to swimming training.
Shamloo N, Modarres Gharavi M, Asgharipour N. The effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy based on emotion regulation training on depression symptoms. J. Fundam. Mental Health. 2014;16(63):261-271.
Taghi MF, Nouri R. Psychology. Tehran, Iran: Butler Printing & Publishing Company; 2014.
Butler-Bowdon T. 50 Psychology Classics Second Edition: Your shortcut to the most important ideas on the mind, personality, and human nature. Nicholas Brealey; 2017.
Wundt WM. Antologia di scritti. Bologna: Il Mulino; 1985.
Jarvis M. Sport psychology: A student's handbook. New York: Routledge; 2006. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203965214
Young M. Psychological characteristics of elite athletes. Semantic Scholar. 2003;1-6.
Furbacher F. Frame of mind coaching [Internet]. Transforming your world 2016. Available from: www.frameofmindcoaching.com/blog/
Dietrich A. Imaging the imagination: the trouble with motor imagery. Methods. 2008;45(4):319-324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymeth.2008.04.004
Singer RN, Cauraugh JH, Tennant LK, Murphey M. Attention and distractors: Considerations for enhancing sport performances. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1991;22(2):95–114.
Bandura A. The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. J Soc Clin Psycho. 1986;4(3):359-373. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.19188.8.131.529
Hausenblas HA, Hall CR, Rodgers WM, Munroe KJ. Exercise imagery: Its nature and measurement. J Appl Sport Psychol. 1999;11(2):171-180. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413209908404198
Holmes PS, Collins DJ. The PETTLEP approach to motor imagery: A functional equivalence model for sport psychologists J Appl Sport Psychol. 2001;13(1):60-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200109339004
Smith D, Holmes P. The effect of imagery modality on golf putting performance. J Sport Exer Psychol. 2004;26(3):385-395. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsep.26.3.385
Fournier JF, Calmels C, Durand?Bush N, Salmela JH. Effects of a season?long PST program on gymnastic performance and on psychological skill development. Int J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2005;3(1):59-78. https://doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2005.9671758
Moran AP. The psychology of concentration in sport performers: A cognitive analysis. East Sussex: Psychology Press; 2016. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315784946
McCaffrey N, Orlick T. Mental factors related to excellence among top professional golfers. Int J Sport Psychol. 1989;20(4):256–278.
Hall CR. Imagery in sport and exercise. In: Singer RN, Hausenblas HA, Janelle CM, editors. Handbook of sport psychology. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons;2001. p. 529-549.
Feltz DL, Landers DM. The effects of mental practice on motor skill learning and performance: A meta-analysis. In Smith D, Bar-Eli M, editors. Essential readings in sport and exercise psychology. Champaign, IL, USA: Human Kinetics;2007; p. 219-230.
Olsson CJ, Jonsson B, Nyberg L. Internal imagery training in active high jumpers. Scand. J. Psychol. 2008;49(2):133-140. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00625.x
Robabeh R, Kazem VM, Abbas B, Anoshirvan K. Effects of cognitive and motivational imagery accompanied with physical practice on performance and learning of the basketball free throw. Journal of Movement Science & Sports. 2009;7(14):39-50.
Nezam S, IsaZadeh H, Hojati A, Zadeh Z. Comparison capability of movement imagery perspectives in elite, sub-elite, and non-elite athletes. Int. Res. J. Basic Appl. Sci. 2014;8(6):712-716.
Eckenrod MR. The effects of pettlep imagery on strength training performance. Master Thesis. Miami University; 2016.
Shariati M, Bakhtiari S. Comparison of personality characteristics athlete and non-athlete student, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz. Procedia Soc Behav Sci 2011;30:2312-2315.
Rostami R, VaezMousavi M, Bahram A, Kazemnejad A. The effect of cognitive and motivational imagery according to physical practice on performance, retention and learning of basketball free throw. Journal of motor science and sports. 2009;7(14):39-50.
Keshavarz C, Falahi A, Daneshmandi H. The effect of mental imagery on the motor performance enhancement among the athletes in the sport of aerobic dance. J Cogn Psychol. 2013;1(1):46-53.
Hatami F, Tahmasbi F, Shahmir EH. The effect of action observation and motor imagery on mu rhythm suppression in basketball free throw shot. Journal of Neuropsychology 2017;3(2):83-100.
Selye H. The stress of life. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill Book Company; 1956.
Selye H. The Physiology and Pathology of Exposure to Stress. A Treatise Based on the Concept of the General Adaptation Syndrome and the Diseases of Adaptation. Ind Med Gaz 1951;87:431-431.
Graham-Jones J, Hardy L. Stress and performance in sport. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons; 1991. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2460080116
Romas JA, Sharma M. Practical stress management: A comprehensive workbook. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Academic Press; 2017.
Orlick T, Partington J. The sport psychology consultant: Analysis of critical components as viewed by Canadian Olympic athletes. The Sport Psychologist. 1987;1(1):4-17. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.1.1.4
Noblet AJ, Gifford SM. The sources of stress experienced by professional Australian footballers. J. Appl. Sport Psychol. 2002;14(1):1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200209339007
Miller PS, Kerr G. The athletic, academic and social experiences of intercollegiate student-athletes. J. Sport Behav. 2002;25(4):346.
Cohn PJ. An exploratory study on sources of stress and athlete burnout in youth golf. The Sport Psychologist. 1990;4(2):95-106. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.4.2.95
Goyen MJ, Anshel MH. Sources of acute competitive stress and use of coping strategies as a function of age and gender. J. Appl. Dev. Psychol. 1998;19(3):469-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80051-3
Krohne HW. Stress and coping theories. International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences. 2002;22:15163-15170. https://doi.org/10.1016/B0-08-043076-7/03817-1
Folkman S. Stress: appraisal and coping. Encyclopedia of behavioral medicine: Springer. 2013;1913-1915. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-1005-9_215
Salmon P. Effects of physical exercise on anxiety, depression, and sensitivity to stress: a unifying theory. Clin. Psychol. Rev.2001;21(1):33-61. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0272-7358(99)00032-X
Vealey RS. Future directions in psychological skills training. The sport psychol. 1988;2(4):318-336. https://doi.org/10.1123/tsp.2.4.318
Maltz M. The magic power of self-image psychology. Mumbai: Jaico Publishing House; 2008.
Silva J, Miele P. The Silva mind control method. New York: Simon and Schuster; 1991.
Barr K, Hall C. The use of imagery by rowers. Int. J. Sport Psychol.1992;23(3):243–261.
Perry C, Spittle M, Morris T. Mental imagery in sport. In Morris T, Summers J, editors. Sport psychology: theory, applications and issues. Hoboken, New Jersey, USA: John Wiley & Sons;2004. p. 344-387.
Decety J, Jeannerod M, Prablanc C. The timing of mentally represented actions. Behavioural brain research. 1989;34(1):35-42. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-4328(89)80088-9
Barrow HM. Man and movement: Principles of physical education. USA: Lea & Febiger; 1983.
Cohen H, Heaton LG, Congdon SL, Jenkins HA. Changes in sensory organization test scores with age. Age and ageing. 1996;25(1):39-44. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/25.1.39
Siamak S, Bahram J. A Study on the reliability and validity of the Short Form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities of Shiraz University 2007;26(3):65-77.
Hall CR, Martin KA. Measuring movement imagery abilities: A revision of the Movement Imagery Questionnaire. Journal of mental imagery. 1997;21(1-2):143–154. https://doi.org/10.1037/t07979-000
Hanton S, Fletcher D, Coughlan G. Stress in elite sport performers: A comparative study of competitive and organizational stressors. J Sports Sci 2005;23(10):1129-1141. https://doi.org/10.1080/02640410500131480
Nicholls AR, Polman RC, Levy AR. A path analysis of stress appraisals, emotions, coping, and performance satisfaction between athletes. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2012;13(3):263-270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.003
Rumbold JL, Fletcher D, Daniels K. A systematic review of stress management interventions with sport performers. Sport Exerc. Perform. Psychol. 2012;1(3):173-193. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026628
Golby J, Sheard M, Lavallee D. A cognitive-behavioural analysis of mental toughness in national rugby league football teams. Percept Mot Skills. 2003;96:455-462.
Coelho RW, Kuczynski, KM, Paes MJ, et al. Effect of a mental training program on salivary cortisol in volleyball players. J Exer Physiol. 2014;17(3):46-57.
Thelwell RC, Greenlees IA, Weston NJ. Using psychological skills training to develop soccer performance. J Appl Sport Psychol. 2006;18(3):254-270. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200600830323
How to Cite
Copyright and Licensing
For all articles published in Atena Journals, copyright is retained by the authors. Articles are licensed under an open access Creative Commons CC BY 4.0 license, meaning that anyone may download and read the paper for free. In addition, the article may be reused and quoted provided that the original published version is cited. These conditions allow for maximum use and exposure of the work, while ensuring that the authors receive proper credit.
Reproducing Published Material from other Publishers
It is absolutely essential that authors obtain permission to reproduce any published material (figures, schemes, tables or any extract of a text) which does not fall into the public domain, or for which they do not hold the copyright. Permission should be requested by the authors from the copyrightholder (usually the Publisher, please refer to the imprint of the individual publications to identify the copyrightholder).
Permission is required for:
- Your own works published by other Publishers and for which you did not retain copyright.
- Substantial extracts from anyones' works or a series of works.
- Use of Tables, Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks if they are unaltered or slightly modified.
- Photographs for which you do not hold copyright.
Permission is not required for:
- Reconstruction of your own table with data already published elsewhere. Please notice that in this case you must cite the source of the data in the form of either "Data from..." or "Adapted from...".
- Reasonably short quotes are considered fair use and therefore do not require permission.
- Graphs, Charts, Schemes and Artworks that are completely redrawn by the authors and significantly changed beyond recognition do not require permission.
In order to avoid unnecessary delays in the publication process, you should start obtaining permissions as early as possible. If in any doubt about the copyright, apply for permission. Atena Journals cannot publish material from other publications without permission.
The copyright holder may give you instructions on the form of acknowledgement to be followed; otherwise follow the style: "Reproduced with permission from [author], [book/journal title]; published by [publisher], [year].' at the end of the caption of the Table, Figure or Scheme.