What are the associations between extroversion, enjoyment, and wellness in group vs non-group physical activity? A pilot study.


  • Mike Trott
  • Lee Smith Anglia Ruskin University


Physical Activity; Personality; Extroversion; Enjoyment; Group; Non-group.


Objectives: One issue regarding prescription of physical activity (PA) is adherence, with enjoyment being shown to be a factor, and extroversion being associated with enjoyment. Furthermore, anecdotal evidence suggests that PA as part of a group yields superior levels of enjoyment than non-groups, however this has not been explored to date. It is the purpose of this study to explore associations between enjoyment and extroversion in group vs non-group PA.

Methods: 17 subjects were recruited and randomised into two groups: ‘group’ and ‘non-group’. ‘Group’ subjects walked for 30-minutes for 5 consecutive days as part of a pair, and ‘non-group’ subjects doing the same intervention alone. All subjects completed two surveys, one pre-intervention measuring extroversion using the Goldberg Transparent Bi-Polar Inventory and wellness using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale. The post-intervention survey measured wellness and enjoyment of the intervention using the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale. A pedometer was also worn.

Findings: The multiple regression model statistically predicted enjoyment (F(7,7) = 15.168, p=<0.001,adj.R2=0.876), with only sub-group type and wellness levels adding significantly to the prediction (p=<0.05). Moreover, the ‘group’ sub-group took significantly more steps than the ‘non-group’ sub-group (18,395 vs 13,168; p=<0.001).

Conclusions: Wellbeing and sub-group type were predictors of enjoyment. Furthermore, subjects who walked in pairs took more steps than subjects who walked alone. Practitioners should consider prescribing PA as part of a group to yield higher enjoyment levels and higher levels of activity. Due to the small sample size, further study is needed with more subjects.


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How to Cite

Trott, M., & Smith, L. (2019). What are the associations between extroversion, enjoyment, and wellness in group vs non-group physical activity? A pilot study . Atena Journal of Sports Sciences, 1, 3. Retrieved from https://atenajournals.com/index.php/ajss/article/view/3