Relationship between body composition and bone mineral density in American football players

Authors

  • Ricardo López García Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • José Omar Lagunes Carrasco Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • Luis Enrique Carranza García Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León
  • Ricardo Navarro Orocio Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León

Keywords:

American football, bone mineral density, lean mass, DEXA, BMI

Abstract

Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the relation between body composition and body mass index (BMI) to bone mineral density (BMD) in college American football players.

Methods: A total of 90 players (22.44 + 1.71 years old) from the major college football league in Mexico participated. The dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) equipment was used, in which the values of BMI, fat mass, lean mass, total mass and BMD were obtained.

Findings: Players who had higher BMI got higher BMD. The strongest significant positive correlations found were lean mass, body weight, and BMI with BMD of the arms, legs, trunk, and spine.

Conclusions: Most of the players analyzed had problems of excess weight and obesity, however, those who had a higher BMI such as obesity type I, II and III had also higher BMD than those with excess weight and normal weight, with significant differences in the regions of arms, legs, spine and total body.

References

Angosto MC. Obesidad: Pandemia del siglo XXI. Monografías de la Real Academia Nacional de Farmacia. 2015.

Zwart M, Azagra R, Encabo G, et al. Measuring health-related quality of life in men with osteoporosis or osteoporotic fracture. BMC Public Health. 2001;11(1):1-8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-775

Porthouse J, Birks YF, Torgerson DJ, Cockayne S, Puffer S, Watt I. Risk factors for fracture in a UK population: a prospective cohort study. Qjm. 2004;97(9):569-574. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hch097

Ravn P, Cizza G, Bjarnason NH, et al. Low body mass index is an important risk factor for low bone mass and increased bone loss in early postmenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 1999:14(9):1622-1627. https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.9.1622

Valdmanis PN, Kabashi E, Dion PA, Rouleau GA. ALS predisposition modifiers: knock NOX, who's there? SOD1 mice still are. Eur J Hum Genet. 2008;16:140-142. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201961

Neglia C, Argentiero A, Chitano G, et al. Diabetes and Obesity as Independent Risk Factors for Osteoporosis: Updated Results from the ROIS/EMEROS Registry in a Population of Five Thousand Post-Menopausal Women Living in a Region Characterized by Heavy Environmental Pressure. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016;13(11):1067. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111067

Fassio A, Idolazzi L, Rossini M, et al. The obesity paradox and osteoporosis. Eating and Weight Disorders-Studies on Anorexia, Bulimia and Obesity. 2018;23(3):293-302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40519-018-0505-2

Chen H, Liu N, Xu X, Qu X, Lu E. Smoking, radiotherapy, diabetes and osteoporosis as risk factors for dental implant failure: a meta-analysis. PloS One. 2013;8(8):e71955. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071955

Abukhadir SS, Mohamed N, Mohamed N. Pathogenesis of alcohol-induced osteoporosis and its treatment: a review. Current drug targets. 2013;14(13):1601-1610. https://doi.org/10.2174/13894501113146660231

Jensen GL, Hsiao PY. Obesity in older adults: relationship to functional limitation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2010;13(1):46-51. https://doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0b013e32833309cf

Cauley, JA. An overview of sarcopenic obesity. J Clin Densitom. 2015;18(4):499-505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2015.04.013

Holecki M, Wiecek A. Relationship between body fat mass and bone metabolism. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2010;120(9):361-367. https://doi.org/10.20452/pamw.969

Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, et al. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9· 1 million participants. The Lancet. 2011;377(9765):557-567. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)62037-5

Moayyeri A, Luben RN, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT. Body fat mass is a predictor of risk of osteoporotic fractures in women but not in men: a prospective population study. J. Intern. Med. 2012;271(5):472-480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2011.02443.x

Gower BA, Casazza K. Divergent effects of obesity on bone health. J Clin Densitom. 2012;16(4):450-454. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2013.08.010

Ström O, Borgström F, Kanis JA, et al. Osteoporosis: burden, health care provision and opportunities in the EU. Archives of osteoporosis. 2011;6(1-2):59-155. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11657-011-0060-1

Johansson H, Kanis JA, Odén A, et al. A meta?analysis of the association of fracture risk and body mass index in women. J Bone Miner Res. 2014;29(1):223-233. https://doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.2017

Lee JE, Pope Z, Gao Z. The role of youth sports in promoting children's physical activity and preventing pediatric obesity: a systematic review. Behav Med. 2018;44(1):62-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2016.1193462

Mathews EM, Wagner DR. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in collegiate American football players, by position. J Am Coll Health. 2008;57(1):33-38. https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.57.1.33-38

Norton K, Olds T. Morphological evolution of athletes over the 20th century. Sports Medicine. 2001;31(11):763-783. https://doi.org/10.2165/00007256-200131110-00001

Yamamoto JB, Yamamoto BE, Yamamoto PP, Yamamoto LG. Epidemiology of college athlete sizes, 1950s to current. Res Sports Med. 2008;16(2):111-127. https://doi.org/10.1080/15438620802103320

Trexler ET, Smith-Ryan AE, Mann JB, Ivey PA, Hirsch KR, Mock M G. Longitudinal body composition changes in NCAA division I college football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(1):1. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001486

Dengel DR, Bosch TA, Burruss TP, et al. Body composition and bone mineral density of national football league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000299

Melvin MN, Smith-Ryan AE, Wingfield HL, Ryan ED, Trexler ET, Roelofs EJ. Muscle characteristics and body composition of NCAA division I football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(12):3320-3329. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000651

Pryor JL, Huggins RA, Casa DJ, Palmieri GA, Kraemer WJ, Maresh CM. A profile of a National Football League team. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(1):7-13. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000303

Elliott KR, Harmatz JS, Zhao Y, Greenblatt DJ. Body size changes among national collegiate athletic association New England division III football players, 1956? 2014: comparison with age-matched population controls. J Athl Train. 2016;51(5):373-381. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-51.5.14

Yamashita D, Asakura M, Ito Y, Yamada S, Yamada Y. Physical characteristics and performance of Japanese top-level American football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(9):2455. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001714

Leder BZ, LeBlanc KM, Schoenfeld DA, Eastell R, Finkelstein JS. Differential effects of androgens and estrogens on bone turnover in normal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(1):204-210. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2002-021036

Gómez JG, Verdoy PJ. Caracterización de deportistas universitarios de fútbol y baloncesto: antropometría y composición corporal. E-balonmano. com: Revista de Ciencias del Deporte. 2011;7(1):39-51.

Fry AC, Kraemer WJ. Physical performance characteristics of American collegiate football players. J Strength Cond Res. 1991;5(3):126-138. https://doi.org/10.1519/00124278-199108000-00004

Oliver JM, Lambert BS, Martin SE, Green JS, Crouse SF. Predicting football players' dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry body composition using standard anthropometric measuresJ Athl Train. 2012;47(3):257-263. https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-47.3.12

Lambert BS, Oliver JM, Katts GR, Green JS, Martin SE, Crouse SF. DEXA or BMI: clinical considerations for evaluating obesity in collegiate division IA American football athletes. Clin J Sport Med. 2012;22(5):436-438. https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0b013e31825d5d65

Bosch TA, Burruss TP, Weir NL, et al. Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(12):3313-3319. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000650

Marfell-Jones M, Stewart A, De Ridder H. ISAK accreditation handbook. Upper Hutt, New Zealand: International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry. 2012.

OMS. Base de datos global sobre el índice de masa corporal (IMC) [Internet]. Disponible en: https://www.who.int/ [consultado: 29 de septiembre del 2020].

Hans D, Downs Jr RW, Duboeuf F, et al. Skeletal sites for osteoporosis diagnosis: the 2005 ISCD Official Positions. J Clin Densitom. 2016;9(1):15-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2006.05.003

WHO Study Group on Assessment of Fracture Risk, & its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Assessment of Fracture Risk and Its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Report of a WHO Study Group (No. 843). World Health Organization. 1994.

Tucker AM, Vogel RA, Lincoln AE, et al. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among National Football League players. Jama. 2009;301(20):2111-2119. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.716

Sparvero ES, Warner S. NFL Play 60: Managing the intersection of professional sport and obesity. Sport Manage. Rev. 2019;22(1):153-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2018.06.005

Borchers JR, Clem KL, Habash DL, Nagaraja HN, Stokley LM, Best TM. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in Division 1 collegiate football players. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(12). https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181abdfec

Steffes GD, Megura AE, Adams J, et al. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in high school and NCAA division I football players. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(7):1749-1757. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827367cd

Vitale JA, Caumo A, Roveda E, et al. Physical attributes and NFL combine performance tests between Italian National League and American football players: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res. 2016;30(10):2802-2808. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001377

Turnagöl HH. Body composition and bone mineral density of collegiate American football players. J Hum Kinet. 2016;51(1):103-112. https://doi.org/10.1515/hukin-2015-0164

Bosch TA, Carbuhn AF, Stanforth PR, Oliver JM, Keller KA, Dengel DR. Body composition and bone mineral density of division 1 collegiate football players: a consortium of college athlete research study. J Strength Cond Res. 2019;33(5):1339-1346. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000001888

Anzell AR, Potteiger JA, Kraemer WJ, Otieno S. Changes in height, body weight, and body composition in American football players from 1942 to 2011. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):277-284. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e31827f4c08

Binkley TL, Daughters SW, Weidauer LA, Vukovich MD. Changes in body composition in Division I football players over a competitive season and recovery in off-season. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(9):2503-2512. https://doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000886

Downloads

Published

2020-12-27

How to Cite

López García, R., Lagunes Carrasco , J. O., Carranza García , L. E. ., & Navarro Orocio , R. . (2020). Relationship between body composition and bone mineral density in American football players. Atena Journal of Sports Sciences, 3(1), 2. Retrieved from https://atenajournals.com/ajss/article/view/31

Issue

Section

Articles